This passage occurs in the RCL Easter Season, Year C, most recently May 2013.
Summary: Two things caught my attention about this passage. First, a woman wins an argument with Paul :-) Second, Lydia has so much in her life going right for her. Yet she is not content. Often we assume that people need to hit rock bottom for the Christian Gospel to make an impact. In Lydia's case, clearly something about her life was incomplete, even if she was not lamenting her life or commiting awful sins. I wonder if this is a helpful angle for reaching the consumerists out there -- no, you are not awful, evil and hell-bent people, but deep down something is missing; the world of selling and consuming doesn't add up.
παρακαλων ("encourage" (participle form), 16:9) It is interesting that the man "encourages" them to come to Macedonia. You could call him an advocate for Macedonia. In fact, the word for Spirit in John's Gospel (and the appointed text for this week) is παρακλητος, the noun form of this verb.
συμβιβαζων ("proving, pulling together, knit" (participle form), 16:10) I find this is great verb for how we understanding the work of the Spirit -- we pull pieces together to build of picture, a map, of what the Spirit calls us to do. When this word is used in Colossians it means "knit together." We pull at pieces -- visions, stirrings of the hearts and basic facts -- to figure out the will of the Spirit.
κολωνια ("colony", 16:12) This word does not really feature in the interpretation of this passage, but it speaks to how we can understand Paul's letter to the Philippians: http://www.zionsjonestown.com/paul/philippi/home.htm See here for more info.
πορφυροπωλις ("dealer in purple cloth", 16:14) Lydia, unlike the jailer, does not encounter the Gospel at a time of weakness, but of relative strength. She is a rich merchant who sails the seven sees. She is at worship. Yet something isn't right; she hungers for something more.
Sad side note: Purple cloth was ruined because of over harvesting of the snails that produced the dye. It is believed those particular snails are actually extinct.
διηνοιξεν ("open", 16:14) This word can simply mean "open" but it can also mean "open" in a more metaphorical way. See the word dianetics and Scientology!!
ο οικος αυτης ("the house of hers", 16:15) This verse is often used as justification (or permission) for infant Baptism. No changes here, but I think the translators overtranslate here. They translate it "She and her house." It should read, "Her house was baptized." First, the word "she" is missing. The only thing in the nominative is "the house." It seems unlikely "she" is implied in the verb because the verb baptize is in the singular, which would not match "she and her house." Furthermore, the word "de" appears, which suggests a change in subject; "Lydia" was the subject in the previous sentence suggesting a new subject. She was baptized; my point is simply that her house was not baptized as an afterthought, but that the act was done all together.
If I lost you, I think I might of lost myself with this last point.