Tuesday, February 28, 2012

Mark 8:27-38 (Study of tenses)

Over time I've worked on three posts related to this passage.
- First, a smattering of Greek tid-bits that will one day become a more coherent post
- Second, an investigation into the brilliance of Mark's Greek tenses
- Third, a Tour de Force (if I do say so myself) on Mark's Greek to highlight the nature our confession


This is the second.
 
Summary:  Mark offers us a Greek 101 clinic in the power of verb conjugation.  He changes tense, voice and mood to portray some key concepts.  Alas, because he writes in Greek (as opposed to English) he needs no helper verbs or adverbs, just a bunch of complicated endings.  Too often we throw in the towel when it comes to parsing verbs, but come along for the ride in these passages and discover Mark's point, adroitly conjugated:  We must always confess Christ; suffering will happen, no matter: Jesus is Lord.

Key concepts relating to verbs:
Tense: 
The tense of the verb in Greek not only indicates when the action occured (past, present and future) but also the nature of the action (on-going or discrete event).  English also offers this distinction:  "I was running" implies something slightly different than "I ran."  In English, we normally need a helper verb/adverb to convey both the timing and nature of the event; Greek simply adds letters before or after the verb, much the dismay of the student. 

The present tense in Greek suggests an on-going nature of the action.  The aorist tense suggests a one-time event.  Grammar books sweat over these distinctions because in everyday usage, it is sloppier than this.  That caveat aside, a good example of this distinction is found in verse 34:  If anyone wants to follow me, they must deny (aorist) themselves, take up (aorist) their cross and follow (present) me.  The idea being that following Jesus is an on-going event, whereas taking up the cross was a discrete event. 

Theological disclaimer:  These verbs might make us move into decision theology; I don't think the point is that we only get one cross to bear in our lives or that we only have to make one choice to follow Christ.  The point here, which needs interpretation, is that Jesus points toward an event of denial, an event of taking up a cross and then an on-going activity of following him.

The imperfect tense connotes on-going action in the past.  In verse 27 and 29 Jesus asks his disciples "Who do you say that I am?"  The verb ask is in the imperfect tense, suggesting that Jesus asked this question multiple times, almost like he was walking around and in their faces.  They respond (aorist):  "Elijah...etc"  However, when Peter confesses "You are the Christ" the tense is present, suggesting that Peter said this more than once and that this confession will be on-going.

To drive this all home:  We are always asked and must always confess Jesus as Lord.

Voice: 
English has two voices, passive and active.  Passive means you got it done to you; active means you do it.  Greek has a third, middle, but this is rarely used and more just makes everything complicated because it was used by Homer and just added more verbs and endings. 

Anyway, in vs. 31 Jesus discusses his suffering, arrest and death and the entire thing is in the passive voice, meaning he is not the agent, but the one having the action done to him. 

This helps shed light on picking up our cross.  Jesus does not find his cross, but rather it comes to him.  In life, to quote, however vagely, Dietrich Bonhoeffer, we don't need to find our cross, we simply follow Jesus and it comes to us.

The verb rise (αναστημι) is active, suggesting that Jesus has the power, even over death, to raise himself!  The cross will come, but resurrection is on the wings...

Mood
English and Greek have a bunch of moods for verbs.  They can be infinitives, indicatives, imperatives, participles...and subjunctives.  Subjunctive in Greek means different stuff than in English, but the basic idea of subjunctive would be "hypothetical."  In vs. 35 and 38 Jesus uses the words ος εαν to mean whoever and in vs. 35 uses ει to mean "if." 

While I want to reassert my caution about simply saying subjunctive = hypothetical, Jesus makes it clear that following him is not necessarily automatic.  There is something unsure and uncertain about our willingness to follow.  Jesus does not say we have no hope of following him; nor does he say all will follow him.  Obviously choice and faith are a tricky matter.  We can debate how to put these together; we cannot debate that Jesus uses the subjunctive and in this case, this means following Jesus is an uncertain reality.  (And yes, I did phrase that ambiguously).

Tuesday, February 14, 2012

Mark 9:2-9 (Transfiguration)

This passage occurs as the Transfiguration passage for the RCL Year B, most recently February of 2015.

Summary:  The key to understanding this story is the number six (in Greek, "hex").  In the Bible, six connotes imperfection; Jesus even dies on the sixth day.  Mark says these events took place after six days and like everything else on the sixth day, it might be wonderful but it is incomplete.  In this story we have incomplete disciples (in number and maturity); incomplete atonement; incomplete ministry of Jesus; if not the law and the prophets themselves revealing their limits as unable to raise the dead.   The whole story is a foreshadowing for the cross and resurrection. 

For this weeks "key words" I have focused on OT connections!  Take your pick:  Exodus or Genesis.  It is all there...

εξ ("six"; there is a rough breathing mark, making it "hex" as in "hexagon"; 9:2).  This is the only time Mark records something as happening "six" days later.  So what happens on the sixth day?  Well, on the 6th day Jesus died on the cross!  Recall the OT:  On the sixth day humanity was created.  Very good (like Transfiguration).  But final?  No.

σκηνη ("tent"; 9:5)  As a child, I heard the word "tabernacle" with a bit of religious awe.  It simply means a tent made into a temple where God dwelt.  At the end of Exodus, you can read about the Tabernacle and the "tent" presence of God, which hosted God's glory.  You can go in all sorts of directions here:  Peter wants to start up old-time religion here; Peter wants to pin Jesus down; Peter, well, just doesn't know what to do.

αγαπητος ("beloved"; 9:7)  This harkens back to another mountain scene, where Abraham takes his beloved son up a mountain to sacrifice him.  Actually, when it says Jesus "led" his disciples up the mountain  (αναφερω (9:2)), the word also means sacrifice.  It is the same as the word used in Genesis 22, as in Abraham leading Isaac up the mountain to be sacrificed.  There is a subtle play on the Old Testament idea of sacrificing beloved sons on a mountain here; but again, this story is all about being incomplete...
One other little note of foreshadowing:
λευκος ("white"; 9:3)  We will not see white again until the resurrection garden with the angels!

Grammar question:  Does anyone know why the word "we" (ημας) in 9:5 is in the accusative and not nominative?  The English translators leave it in the accusative by making it "it is good for us to be here" but in this is not really what is going on in the Greek.  In the Greek, the word ημας is the subject of the infinitive phrase, "we to be" and in Greek the subject of infinitive phrases takes the accusative.

Tuesday, February 7, 2012

Mark 1:40-45

This passage occurs in the RCL Epiphany Season, Year B, most recently February of 2015.
 
Summary:  Last week was all about the power of Jesus.  I think this story actually shows the gentleness of Jesus.  What will it take to heal this man?  Power?  Certainly.  But also a compassionate touch.

Word pairs:
δυναμαι and καθαριζω (1:40)  The first word here means "able" and can be translated simply, "can."  It is worth noting its root is the same as "dynamite" and the word has the connotation of power:  "If you wish, you have the power to cleanse me."  The second word comes into English as "catharize."  We use this word in Christian contexts with sin:  "He catharizes us from sin" (Lutheran confessional rite and 1 John 1).  Here it is used with cleansing of his disease.  While the cleansing of disease is an interesting topic in itself, I'd like us to consider the connection between power and "deep cleaning."  We buy powerful chemicals with "deep cleaning" abilities to get our floor clean.  We have powerful machines and medicines that cleanse our heart valves.  Are these gifts from God?  Furthermore, what kind of power does it take to cleanse our hearts from their sins?  This very issue will come up in chapter 2, the next story, when Jesus is asked on what authority he declares sins forgiven.

σπλαγνιζομαι and απτω (1:41)  The word for "compassion" (σπλαγνιζομαι) is a great one in the New Testament.  In Greek this word comes from intestines, the idea being that when Jesus sees the man he is filled with compassion.  His reaction is to touch (απτω) the person.  This is not a violent siezing, but a touching.  Sometimes what is needed when confronting the sin in the world is not simply a thunder bolt, but a touch compassionate touch.

μαρτυριον and κηρυσσω (1:44/45)  Our leper becomes the first witness (μαρτυριον; think martyr) and proclaimer (κηρυσσω).  This is not simply ironic because he had been on the outside of society, but Jesus asked him not to do so. 
Point one, not for a sermon, but my eternal axe against Lutheran Orthodoxy:  Taken alone, we might think that for Mark proclamation is simply a declaration of what God has done.  However, the disciples proclaim for the purpose of repentance (6.12); Jesus initial proclamation contains the command to repent (1.14).  Furthermore, Jesus says that wherever (14.19) the Gospel is proclaimed, people will recall the anointing of Jesus.  In short, we cannot simply say that proclamation involves only the "Gospel" in the sense of Jesus activities for us.  It involves also an ethical imperative on the listener and the broader story and context of the Gospel. 
Point two, for a sermon:  To tell others about Jesus requires nothing less than experiencing Jesus' compassion. This person prayed, had their prayers answered and then told the world.  What stops us?

Wednesday, February 1, 2012

Mark 1:29-39

This passage occurs in the RCL Epiphany Season, Year B, most recently February of 2015.
 
Summary:  Wow.  What an amazing passage.  When I first learned about Saint Anthony and the monastic movement, I thought it involved leaving this world for our own spiritual gain.  Then I read that actually Saint Anthony was going into the wilderness to purge it from evil, not to get away from it.  In the same way, I wonder if Jesus' prayer is about purging the wilderness from the demons.  Everything else in this passage, even proclamation, is portrayed in the light of spiritual conflict.

To put it in a more catchy way:  When you go to proclaim, do you expect to see the minions of the devil fleeing and fighting?

Struggle against evil:
κρατεω ("hold"; 1.31) The word here for hold is "krate-oo" which is not hold hand in a sentimental way. This is the word for power, as in democracy. This is the word for sieze. This is what Herod will do to John the Baptist (arrest) and what the Chief Priests want to do to Jesus. Jesus in Mark 1 is wrestling the demons, not smiling for the home video cameras.
ερημος ("wilderness"; 1:35) and εκβαλλω ("cast out"; 1:35-1:39):  Jesus had been cast out into the wilderness (herehmos).  Now after he casts out demons, he goes there to pray.  Often times we think of monasticism as a wimpy and academic escape from the world, but for Jesus (and many of the first desert fathers and mothers) the movement into the wilderness means cleansing out the forces of evil.

Nature and purpose of the church:
διακονεω ("serve"; 1 31)  Peter's mother in law has been freed to serve others, suggesting that our freedom comes with an opportunity to serve others too.  It comes into English (and the ELCA) as Deaconness, Diaconal ministers and deacons.

This word comes into play three times in Mark's Gospel.  Here and again in Mark 15, when Mark points out that the women were attending Jesus during his ministry.  Finally, it comes in during Mark 10, when Jesus says he came to serve, not to be served.  Interesting is that when this verb is in conjunction with Jesus it is in the aorist case, suggesting a one time event.  In Mark and specifically in Mark 10, I would argue, the service of Jesus is to die on the cross.

επισυναγω ("gather"; 1 33) In this passage begins with Jesus leaving the synagogue. Now the people are gathering around him (syn-ago-ing!) Where is church? Where Jesus is...duh...anyone 2nd grader who has read AC VII knows that.  Where Jesus is meeting humans in need.
κηρυξω ("proclaim"; 1:38)  Proclaim is a great Lutheran word.  But in this case it is not connected with the forgiveness of sins, but the expulsion of demons.  I would offer that three key elements of the church:  prayer, proclamation and service, all involve the conflict against evil rather than simply an academic escape or comfort and safety!
θεραπευω ("heal"; 1:34)  Jesus' therapy session is on!  Again here even healing is seen within the context of a struggle against evil.

Foreshadowing of Resurrection:
ηγειρεν ("raise up"; 1.31) and αναστας ("resurrect"; 1.35):  These verbs both mean to raise up or resurrect.
λιαν πρωι (1.35; these words together mean early morning):  They don't come back into Mark until chapter 16 when we get to the resurrection
θυρα ("gate"; 1.33) The word for "door" here is also gate, as in Jesus is the gate from John's Gospel.  Or as in, there was a stone at the gate of the tomb (see Mark 15 and 16!).