14:13: Jesus went "kata idion." This is the first time Jesus has done anything by himself in the Gospel of Matthew. Also, this sentence has a typical grammatical contruction with a circumstantial participle to begin with followed by the meat (Lit: Heard this, Jesus...) Yet when the crowd heard Jesus (same word: akouoo, also in a participle form), he began to follow him (imperfect).
14:14: Here Jesus has compassion -- which in Greek literally means "intestined" (splanchnizomai) someone...and he healed their diseases. The word for heal here is literally "therapeoo." Today we learn about therapy, Jesus style...
14:15: Fourth sentence in a row that begins with a circumstantial participle that has little else around it followed by the main verb. In 14:15, the word "evening" comes before the verb, but it is still the same idea: Under the circumstances of it having become night, or "When night fell..." Also interesting is that the word that the disciples use in their question is "release" or apoluoo, literally like pardon or free from bondage. The disciples want to unhook people from Jesus! The last sentence in the verse is a bit tricky. Literally, "In order that, going into the city, they may buy food." The hina goes with the verb after the participle that immediately follows it.
14:16: The verb here for give is in the aorist. This is the same tense of the verb in the Lord's prayer, "Give us this day." Perhaps this suggests that the disciples, in their worry about future provision are forgetting their only task is in the present.
14:17: The response of the disciples begins with the word "not" Literally "Not we have."
14:19: take, bless, broke and gave...Appear again in Matthew 26:26.
14:20: The disciples now give the food to the crowd; however, the verb give is missing. It literally reads "The disciples (to) the crowds." Maybe the disciples also took the bread and broke it and give it...and not just gave it!
14:20: The word here for "fill" is related to the word for grass -- the crowd sat on the grass "chortos" and later was "chortazo"-ed. Perhaps a subtle reminder that God's abundance is always there -- even in the midst of a "herma" (wilderness, vs 13; and 15) and when the "oora" (hour) has past (vs 15).