The church normally reserves discussion about doubt for Easter II and the person of Thomas. But as I read Luke this year, the disciples spiritual blindness and doubt really struck me. Luke does a masterful scene of portraying the difficulty of that morning and the struggle for the early disciples to believe. Rather than cast doubt on the resurrection this amplifies its true meaning: Christ is raised amid the chaos of real life, with darkness, doubt and even despair, not in a fairy tale world where everybody gets it.
βαθεως ("very early, or more literally, deep"; 24.1) The dawn is not simply described as early but as "Bathos" or deep. It is a deep dawn.
απορεισθαι ("at a loss"; 24.4) The word for "at a loss" is related to the word for vision -- "apo-ora-oo" literally "away from sight." They had lost their way, their vision, their sight. It will take messengers from God to open their eyes. In fact, it will take the Word of God to recall in their hearts the Good News.
τον ζωντα ("the living"; really "the living one"; 24.5) Oddly enough, the translators are too literal here with the phrase "why are you searching for the living among the dead." The phrase "the living" is exactly what it says in Greek, word for word, but the grammar of the sentence dictates the translation: "the one who is living" or "the living one." Point A) "The living among the dead" is more poetic. When it comes to preaching, go for it! Point B) It amplifies the confusion of the disciples.
ηπιστουν (disbelieving, from απιστεω; 24.11) It is not only Thomas who doubts, but the whole crew!
θαυμαζω ("wonder"; "amaze"; 24.12) The word here is "thaumaz-oo" means "amaze" or "wonder" in Greek. You can even see the word "amaze" in it (even though M-W.com does not give this as the etymology. Whatever.) Anyway, the vast majority of the time Luke uses this verb, it means wonder, as in amaze. For example, when Zachariah writes, "His name is John (1:63)" or when Jesus sees a person's faith, he is amazed (7:9 Roman centurion). So it seems a bit odd that Peter, by the NIV and the NET, is left wondering and not being amazed. But perhaps a bit of a play on this is a helpful insight into all of us -- we are both wondering and amazed.
προς εαυτον ("to himself"; 24.12) Most translators take the phrase, "to himself" to mean "to his possessions," namely, Peter's house (including BDAG). Hence they translate it "Peter went to his house." Yet, Peter does not necessarily go to his home. It literally says, "He went away to himself." This could just as naturally read, "He went away by himself." As the KJV puts it "wondered in himself." Most translators likely base their translation on John 20:10, where it is more clear that the disciples went home. But Luke's imagery is of Peter walking away by himself, pondering these events, likely without any real direction in his wanderings.
Some translation help (and perhaps a nugget for a sermon):
σαββατων 24.1 Grammar note: The Greek literally says, "On the first of the Sabbath." This means the first day after Sabbath (ie the first day of the week), which would be the 8th day, or Sunday. This is why we worship as Christians on the 8th day, the day after the Jewish sabbath. Also, Jesus will appear to Thomas 8 days later, reaffirming this 8th day connection! (In Luke's Gospel, Jesus was also transfigured on the 8th day)
ιδου 24.4 The word "suddenly" is actually an interjection -- "idou" (like the Hebrew henneh)
μνησθητε 24.6 The word here for "remember" is related to the word for "tomb" (both have the same root, which in English comes in as mnemonic.
αροματα 24.1 The word for spice is "aroma"
αποκεκυλισμενον 24.2 Grammar note: The word "rolled away" is a participle here. It is perfect passive. This is a helpful verb for understanding what the perfect in Greek means. The stone had undergone the action of being rolled away and its present state was a result of that action. Perhaps a sermon idea: Something has been permanently changed by the Resurrection. The tombstone is gone
αστραπτουση 24.4 The angles in the tomb are flashing; Jesus says the son of Man will be "flashing" in his coming. (17.24)...hmm...Perhaps Luke suggests that in the resurrection, the kingdom has come?