9:38 The translations generally say "someone" or "a man" was trying to cast out demons. However, the Greek is a bit more vague. It simply is "tina" which can mean, someone, something, any, certain, a -- generally an indefinite marker. In otherwords, the disciples have dehumanized their opponents!
9:38 The tense of the verb "to stop/hinder" "kooly-oo" is imperfect; "we continued to stop" or "we kept preventing." (The verb follow is also in the perfect tense). [Greek grammar: One thing worth noting is that the participle for cast out is in the present tense. In translation though, its tense is governed by the finite verb, in this case "we saw" which is in the aorist. So the action of the casting out is present relative to the action of seeing.]
9:38 Pronoun is key here: "hymin" -- "not following us"!
9:39 Another lesson on Greek imperatives; the "meh" + present imperative construction suggests that the person was doing this action already (as in "do not be afraid" implies that the person was already afraid]. To translate then, "No longer hinder..."
9:39 Here we have a little play on words. The word for "deed of power/wonder" is "dynamis." The word for "able" is "dynamai" -- same root. If you do power in Jesus name, you do not have the power to speak evily of him.
9:39 The word for "speak against" is a great one: kakologe-oo. Speak kaka (bad) of someone; but the word is more akin to blaspheme/renounce than simply slander.
9:41 The Greek text as "give a cup of water in name." What is missing? Jesus! It should read "name of Jesus" or "name of mine," which a good number of manuscripts have, including the classic case where editors were scribbling out each other's work. I think it is implied though!
9:41 Here we have the word from early in the call to discipleship: "Lose your life" (apollu-mi).
9:42 Both 9:41 and 9:42 describe to conditional events, namely, what happens to non-believers (or believers) based on their interaction with believers. Both cases are the "hos an" + subjunctive construction.
9:43 The word for life (Zooeh = zwh) has an article before it: "The life"
9:47 There are some fun words in here in these verses (skandaliz-oo; apokopt-oo) worth noting in this one is that Jesus returns to the exorcism and tells them that they should "cast out" (exball-oo) their own eyes...