4.13 No major translation picks up on the fact that it is "to Abraham OR his descendants." That or (not kai but eh) is really puzzling to me.
4.13 This is not a Greek insight, but reading the text in Greek, this caught my eye. The promise is spelled out here in bold terms, not simply in terms of resurrection, or even forgiveness, but the world (kosmos).
4.14 The word "nullify" (katarge-oo) here Paul used a few verses ago (3:31) to say that we do not nullify the law. (This is NOT the word Jesus uses to talk about abolishing the law)
4.15 The law however katerge-oo (one vowel difference) wrath; ie, it accomplishes this.
4.17 The word here for nations is "Ehtnos," which is normally translated in the plural (as it is here) as "gentiles." God made Abraham a father to many Gentiles is how the audience would have heard this!
4.17 Here is the word from the previous week: "Zooopoie-oo" (Make alive!) Once again, God is the subject of the verb.
4.20 The word here relating to the "strengthening" of faith is "endynamo-oo" This is a great reminder that even as Paul is talking about life and death, there is a way in which faith empowers us. In short, faith doesn't simply make us alive but lets us live.
4.24 The object of faith is not forgiveness, but the resurrection; this points toward that great insight of Gerhard Forde, that beneath forgiveness is life and death.
4.25 The word here for betray (paradidoo-mi) is the same on as in the Gospel of Mark for this weak.