8:1 Knowing the geography of Corinth helps explain the whole eating meat to idols; in an areas about the size of 5 football fields are three markets and eight temples. The social events in downtown Corinth were meals at the temples; the meat that was bought at the markets was likely from these temples. See: http://www.paulandgreece.com/corinth for more on this.
The word for puff up is "physio-oo" is related to the word for "natural" but in this case derives from the word for bellows (the things you use to build up a fire). This word only appears 7 times in the whole NT/OT; 6 of those in 1 Cor!
8:3 Interestingly, the word for "known" here (gninoosk-oo) here is in the perfect. In otherwords, this verse should read "The one who loves God has already been known by God." Paul's use of the perfect here emphasizes the fact that God already knew up and we continue in a state of being known.
8:6 Paul does some work here with little words that give good insight into the problem: All things (ta panta) are from (Ex) God; yet we are for (eis) God. God may be the universal source, but not everyone acknowledges this. Yet for Jesus, all things are through (dia) him; we are also through him. This is an odd case where the 1st person in the Trinity is more particular than the 2nd person!
8:8 Paul uses the word abound here (perisseu-oo). Later in chapter 14, he will return to this verb, saying, since you do want to abound...and then tell them to hold their tongues in worship!
8.9 Most translations here use the word "encourage" or "strengthened" for the word "oikodome-oo." This word Paul uses earlier to talk about love "building" up people. I think Paul's use of this word twice points out that are actions within the Christian community WILL build people up -- that is not the question; the question is how will we build each other up?